The Cambridge History of Iran. The Figure of the Religious Poet". Vol 2, No 1 Issue — March — Section Retrieved 26 October Hovannisian; Georges Sabagh The Persian Presence in the Islamic World. The Golden age of Islam [ From Babel to Dragomans: Interpreting the Middle East: Interpreting the Middle East. Archived from the original on 25 June Archived from the original on 9 September I The Age of the Caliphs. A Short History of Iraq. Retrieved 20 June Politics, Energy and Security.
A Brief History of Iraq. A Borderland in Transition. The newly independent states of Eurasia: Ebel; Robert; Menon, Rajan Energy and conflict in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Russia and Iran in the great game: The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation. Large numbers of Georgian and Armenian captives had lived in Iran since or as far back as Armenian People , p.
The Jews of Iran in the Nineteenth Century: Aspects of History, Community. Fall of the Sultanate: Oxford University Press, Oxford.
By January, Ottoman regulars and cavalry detachments associated with the old Hamidiye had seized the towns of Urmia, Khoy, and Salmas. Demonstrations of resistance by local Christians, comprising Armenians, Nestorians, Syriacs, and Assyrians, led Ottoman forces to massacre civilians and torch villages throughout the border region of Iran. Without distorting the facts, one can affirm that the centuries-old Armenian presence in the regions of Urmia, Salmast, Qaradagh, and Maku had been dealt a blow from which it would never recover.
American Armenian International College. Assyrians who were killed in Khoy, some Armenian residents of Khoy were also massacred at the same time, June Cultural and Ethical Legacies. An Introduction to the Modern Middle East: History, Religion, Political Economy, Politics. Hess, "the Iranian Crisis of —46 and the Cold War. All the Shah's Men.
Keddie, Rudolph P Matthee. Iran and the Surrounding World: The Politics of Secularism in International Relations. Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 25 November Government and Politics [2 volumes]: The Dynamics of the Iranian Revolution: The Pahlavis' Triumph and Tragedy.
Retrieved 22 June America Reacts " ". The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict. A History of Modern Iran. Cambridge, UK; New York: Retrieved 6 December Ministry of Interior of Iran. Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 27 June Fifth day of unrest as regime cracks down on critics". Retrieved 15 June The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 June Asia in the Second Nuclear Age. Retrieved 7 April Archived from the original on 24 June The Book of Iran: A Survey of the Geography of Iran.
World Weather and Climate Information. Archived from the original on 22 September Archived from the original on 7 August Retrieved 4 August The Complete Fauna of Iran. International Union for Conservation of Nature. The Life of the Lion.
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Howard Timmins, Cape Town. Archived from the original on 20 May Hamshahri Online in Persian. Archived from the original on 23 June Focus on reverse migration". Archived from the original on 26 March Retrieved 17 April Retrieved 28 January ". Archived from the original on 10 November Archived from the original on 9 March Archived from the original on 27 November Retrieved 24 February Archived from the original on 4 May Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 30 September Retrieved 18 March Three Child Offenders Executed". Freedom in the World Retrieved 25 May The Islamic Republic of Iran holds elections regularly, but they fall short of democratic standards due to the role of the hard-line Guardian Council, which disqualifies all candidates deemed insufficiently loyal to the clerical establishment.
Ultimate power rests in the hands of the country's supreme leader , Ayatollah Ali Khamenei , and the unelected institutions under his control. Human rights abuses continued unabated in , with the authorities carrying out Iran's largest mass execution in years and launching a renewed crackdown on women's rights activists. The regime maintained restrictions on freedom of expression, both offline and online, and made further arrests of journalists, bloggers, labor union activists, and dual nationals visiting the country, with some facing heavy prison sentences. Hard-liners in control of powerful institutions, including the judiciary and the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps IRGC , were behind many of the year's abuses.
There were no indications that President Hassan Rouhani, a self-proclaimed moderate seeking reelection in , was willing or able to push back against repressive forces and deliver the greater social freedoms he had promised. Opposition leaders Mir Hossein Mousavi, his wife Zahra Rahnavard, and reformist cleric Mehdi Karroubi remained under house arrest for a sixth year without being formally charged or put on trial.
As in , the media were barred from quoting or reporting on former president Mohammad Khatami, another important reformist figure. The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on August 27, Archived from the original on 12 June Archived from the original on 22 December Iran pursues ballistic missile work, complicating nuclear talks". Archived from the original on 1 August Retrieved 21 May Executive, legislative branch officials endorse privatization plan".
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Archived from the original on 8 August Giving engagement a chance. Retrieved 12 December Retrieved 8 January Archived from the original on 6 January — via NYTimes. Khamenei's business empire gains from Iran sanctions relief". Retrieved 14 January Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 14 April The Structure of Power in Iran". Retrieved 1 July Archived from the original on 4 February The Renewal of Islamic Law: Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original on 24 April Strategic Partners or Competing Regional Hegemons?
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Retrieved 16 October Iran and the Challenge of Azerbaijani Identity. Most conventional estimates of the Azerbaijani population range between one-fifth to one-third of the general population of Iran, the majority claiming one-fourth.
Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: It is difficult to determine the exact number of Southern Azeris in Iran, as official statistics are not published detailing Iran's ethnic structure. Nationalism and Ethnicity after Khomeini, Palgrave Macmillan, In , Amanolahi estimated all Turkic-speaking communities in Iran to number no more than 9 million. CIA and Library of congress estimates range from 16 percent to 24 percent — that is, 12—18 million people if we employ the latest total figure for Iran's population Azeri ethnicsts, on the other hand, argue that overall number is much higher, even as much as 50 percent or more of the total population.
Such inflated estimates may have influenced some Western scholars who suggest that up to 30 percent that is, some 23 million today Iranians are Azeris. Economy, Society — Politics: Retrieved 31 August Retrieved July 21, Kingdom of the Cults, The. Ninety-five percent of Iran's Muslims are Shi'ites. The Persian Gulf and South Asia: Shias constitute seventy-five percent of the population of the Gulf.
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